What is ‘Bioenergy’?
Energy Production from Organic Wastes
One of the renewable energy sources, perhaps one of the most diverse production potentials is bioenergy. It has biogas, biodiesel, bioethanol and biomass production options and as a result of the studies carried out, energy production options from organic wastes are increasing day by day.
The amount of energy we need is increasing day by day and the amount of energy obtained from natural energy resources is insufficient. Therefore, searches for alternative energy sources were made. The use of energy sources such as fossil is not preferred because it causes serious damage to the environment. For this reason, researchers have focused on studies to increase and develop natural energy resources.
We can say that the most preferred energy source among renewable energy sources is bioenergy. Bioenergy is the energy obtained from organic wastes. Since the supply of organic wastes is extremely easy and inexpensive, bioenergy sources are generally preferred. As we mentioned above, there are various production options.
Biomass energy; It is a type of energy obtained by biological sources such as wood, charcoal, animal droppings, agricultural products and forestry industry organic wastes, alcohol and methane fermentation, various aquatic plants. It is mostly used for warming purposes. Burning straw in villages is one of the best examples of biomass energy. In addition to this, when considering industrial scale, solid, gas and liquid fuels are obtained from urban wastes, agricultural industry wastes, or using different techniques, and biomass fuels can produce heat and electricity. It is also possible to improve the fuel quality of the biomass and to produce alternative biofuels through various processes.
It is an alternative biofuel. The sugar obtained as a result of hydrolysis of sugar, starch or cellulose-based biomass is fermented and the alcohol released as a result of fermentation is separated from water and bioethanol is obtained.
Another alternative biofuel, biodiesel, is released as a result of the reaction of vegetable oils or animal oils obtained from oilseed plants with a catalyst accompanied by alcohol. The leftovers or animal fats used in your home can also be used as biodiesel raw materials.
Another alternative is biofuel biogas. It occurs as a result of fermentation of organic-based wastes in an oxygen-free environment. Biogas is colorless, odorless, lighter than air. A biogas consists of an average of 40-70% methane, 30-60% carbon dioxide, 0-3% hydrogen sulfide and a small amount of nitrogen and hydrogen.
And we can talk about biohydrogen as the last alternative type of fuel. Cellulose is a hydrogen produced from organic carbon sources such as sugar and essential fatty acids, produced biochemically with the help of microorganisms growing in an oxygen-free environment.
Our country is very rich in biomass resources because it is an agricultural country. The dependence on fossil fuels is expected to end altogether as a result of increased use of biomass resources and increased use of bioenergy.
Bioenergy Usage Areas in Our Country
In our country, bioenergy is basically used in two ways. For heating and cooking purposes, and also for industrial scale fuel.
Bioenergy used for heating and cooking; wood, plant waste, animal waste and charcoal. bioenergy used for fuel on an industrial scale are bioethanol, biodiesel and biogas.
Recently, studies on the use of bioenergy have been increased in order to increase air quality in cities, reduce greenhouse gas emission rate and improve agricultural industries.
One of the main reasons for the importance of using bioenergy is that bioethanol and biodiesel, alternative bioenergy fuels, can be used against oil.
Bioenergy sources used in our country are forest products and animal wastes. Most of the bioenergy consumed is used by people living in the countryside for heating and cooking purposes. The most used energy source to produce heat is wood. Apart from this, it is possible to say that the use of other bioenergy types is very few. It is possible to say that the use of biofuels is almost non-existent in the transportation sector.
Researchers have been carrying out many studies especially in order to activate and increase the use of biofuels. In addition, efforts are underway to expand the use of other bioenergy resources.