Will we charge electric vehicles with fossil-based sources?

At the 24th International Energy and Environment Fair and Conference (ICCI 2018) held in Istanbul Fair Center (İFM) between 02-04 May 2018, the moderator of the Architects and Engineers Group (MMG) moderated in the special session of the Architects and Engineers Group (MMG). Speakers at the session of Osman Balta; Fatih Saltabaş, General Manager of Istanbul Enerji A.Ş, Founder of Gen Automobile. Gürsel Güzel, Yıldız Technical University Faculty Member Assoc. Dr. I joined with Ozan Erdinç. The panels I contributed with the presentation I had prepared for the special session, fossil recently come of fuels, renewable energy sources and Turkey’s potential, the new generation of electric vehicles in the world the rapid development of our country and along with the reflections of electric vehicles extract the battery of the raw material, lithium resources reserves in the world We talked in detail with the speakers about the latest situation and development, costs and future of our country.

In the presentation I made primarily, I talked about the temporal development and future of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution, the milestones of renewable energy investments in the world and in our country.

Then, I had a presentation about the development of renewable energy investment costs in the world and in our country between 2008-2015.

When looking at the investment costs of renewable energy sources between 2008 and 2015, investment costs in solar power plants decreased by about 54 percent, and again between these years, 41 percent in wind power plants and 73 percent in battery technologies. In technology, investment costs decreased by approximately 94 percent.

Worldwide electricity production has doubled since 1980’s to meet the increasing demand. The amount of energy investment to be made to meet the increasing electricity demand between 2017 and 2030 will be around 14 trillion dollars. According to a study led by Marc Jacopson of Stanford University, published last week, in 139 of 200 countries around the world, production from renewable sources such as wind, solar and hydroelectricity will meet the vast majority of countries’ total production by 2050.

Jacopson and his colleagues calculated that the world should spend 125 trillion dollars by 2050 to meet its energy investments. The fact that the electricity source is a renewable energy source will leave nearly 25 million people unemployed in the world, but with the new investments to be made, it will provide about 50 million new jobs.

Batteries that will change the energy infrastructure in our world,

Apart from the energy supply chain methods that will turn the existing systems upside down, change their point of view, bring them to the point of classical production and consumption, batteries that will both change the energy policies of the country, change the direction of investments and affect international policies, it has already started making things easier.

In the words of Tesla CEO Elon Musk, the batteries aiming to “change the energy infrastructure of the world”.

When we look at wind and solar as a source of energy, we can think that it seems to be an unlimited natural resource without fossil fuels, but when we look carefully, the energy produced from these sources reveals an unstable production graphic with the change of meteorological conditions.

Transition to Lithium batteries in electric vehicles,

Batteries are the most important part of me in the spread of electric vehicles. Rapid orientation towards the electric car requires great progress in battery technology. The history of the basic lead acid battery dates back to the second half of the 19th century. They found that lithium, the lightest metal in the periodic table, could form the basis for a new rechargeable battery. Lithium contains a very high level of electrochemicals, so it stores much higher energy. Lithium is the lightest metal in the periodic table. It is important that the battery set is as light as possible, especially in electric vehicles. In 1991, lithium-ion batteries began to enter consumer electronics. These smaller and more efficient batteries made laptops run faster and last longer with every charge. And lithium batteries have started to be used in another area, and they have been used in mobile phones, allowing the size of mobile phones to shrink. With the increasing density and low price of lithium batteries, a battery can be made that promises a better future for electric cars and is more competitive – better than nickel, metal (NIMH) batteries used in the first hybrid vehicles, or lead acid batteries used in cars today. the point has been reached.

In 2001, lithium was used in many industries. landa (ceramic, aluminum, rubber, engine oil…) is used, only 5 percent of it was used in battery technology. In 2015, the use of lithium in batteries exceeds 30 percent. By the year 2025, I hope that the lithium usage rate in the batteries will exceed 70 percent.

Considering the demand for lithium batteries, it is seen that it concentrates in 2 main areas.

Energy storage; Along with the lithium-based battery technologies and energy storage technology, it has provided a significant investment increase in renewable energy investments. (GES investments 40 percent, RES investments 15 percent for 2017)

Electric Vehicles; Electric vehicle sales have increased rapidly with lithium-based battery technologies.

In their efforts to advance the electric car, there were a group of inventors, entrepreneurs and small electric car enthusiasts, mostly in California. They put the name Tesla in the vehicle they developed, referring to the eccentric genius who found the idea of ​​alternating current. The construction of Tesla did not seem easy at all. It was supposed to dissolve seven thousand lithium-ion laptop batteries ready for use, making them a huge battery. The engineering and design problems of this new car were enormous, and many milestones were passed in quick succession. Tesla was released in 2008 and reached 96 km in four seconds. The starting price was around 110 thousand dollars. Most importantly, it took 32 hours to charge the car at 110 volts. 220 V was reduced to 4.5 hours with a setup. However, fast charging has always been one of the promised features. Tesla was certain that he did a remarkable job, although his final commercial future was unclear. However, the battery is only one half of the equation; the other half is charging. The ultimate goal is to load electricity to the vehicle with reliable, fast and appropriate safety, that is, to charge the vehicles in time as much as the petrol filling time.

The prevalence of electric vehicles in the world?

Today, the number of electric vehicles in the world constitutes 1 percent of the total vehicles. Electric vehicles are widely used especially in countries like Norway, Finland, Germany and France. Electric vehicle sales in Norway increased by 40 percent in 2016 compared to a year ago. Similarly, a great increase was observed in the sales of electric vehicles in Germany. One reason for this is that the big brands in industrial countries such as Germany also included the production of electric vehicles. Brands such as Volkswagen and BMW accelerate the production of electric vehicles, but also develop their technologies and produce vehicles with a much longer range capacity.

So, how is our people’s overview of electric vehicles in our country?

In the recent research conducted by Boğaziçi University, Turkish people are very enthusiastic about electric vehicles and that our people have great interest in electric vehicles as a result of the survey conducted with 600 people who own or plan to buy vehicles in the next 2 years, and that they do not have enough information. I have reached the data that the lack of sufficient infrastructure for the charging of electric vehicles is the main obstacles to the spread of electric vehicles. In other words, barriers to perception constitute 47 percent of the reasons for not considering purchasing electric vehicles. 19 percent of these people are those who lack knowledge, and 18 percent are those who say “No infrastructure”. Therefore, the proliferation of charging stations is critical in the development of this infrastructure. about 2 thousand 500 electric vehicle by the end of 2017 in Turkey (22.5 million as of March 2018 the total number of vehicles over the year), we know that it is in use. Today, from the most luxurious vehicle segment to the most economical vehicles, all automotive brands have an inevitable very strong tendency towards electric vehicles. There is an effort to include at least one clean vehicle in their portfolio, even if they do not fully transition. Therefore, if the source of electric vehicles in this industry which is expected to grow rapidly is provided by renewable energy, the electric vehicle market will enter a truly sustainable growth trend. ”

Incentive is very important for the spread of electric vehicles;

Parking and electric charging stations are the two most important results regarding electric vehicles.

How will electric parks develop and how will electric charging stations become widespread?

They state that those who think about buying a car complain about the absence of a station, investors who think about investing in a station do not demand an electric vehicle and there is no incentive mechanism in this area. Somehow it is necessary to create an incentive mechanism that will advance both mechanisms at the same time. Particularly, the public and private sector coming together will make a big difference in the spread of electric vehicles. For example, in line with this incentive mechanism in the UK, electric vehicles enter free zones in certain regions.

A warehouse full of lifetime

Now let’s do some brain training. You have solar panels or solar roof tiles on the roof of your house. It converts the energy it receives from the sun into electricity energy during the day. You also have an electrical storage system connected to these panels. Maybe you have a 10kWh Powerwall on the garage wall or if you want cheaper, you have parallel batteries in your warehouse connected in parallel. You store all the electrical energy obtained in these batteries. And when you come home in the evening, you transfer this energy to your vehicle. Maybe after 10 years, the whole system pays for itself and you don’t see a 50-year electricity bill. Of course, we are talking about a technology that is under development. The purpose of this technology is to provide ease of charging and practicality. You don’t have to connect your vehicle with a cable every day. With the park you make in the evening, your morning charge is ready. Maybe you will not even have to stop by the gas station again with this method. Or gas stations will transform as a wireless charging area.